The Importance of Community’s Involvement in Park Management towards Sustainable Livelihoods


  • Nor Azlina Abu Bakar Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Geoffrey Wall Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, Canada



This study investigates the impacts of park establishment on communities and how institutional structures, such as customary laws, can influence communities’ involvement in ecotourism. A sustainable livelihoods (SL) approach was adopted as a framework to analyze the relationships among institutional processes and organizational structures (i.e. NCR, institutional arrangement), livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes. Although Tun Sakaran Marine Park contains beautiful islands, and tourism is the main economic activity, surprisingly, this study found out that local communities are not involved in tourism. Institutional support should be strengthened if ecotourism is to become a livelihood strategy for communities in TSMP.

Keywords: ecotourism; sustainable livelihoods; institutional arrangement; marine park

eISSN 2398-4279 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. DOI: